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Mary in the Eastern Orthodox Tradition

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These are links that you  can access during our class presentations and also use for research.

NOTE: The only websites you will use for your research are here. If you should discover another website of use, consult with the professor for permission to be sure it is reliable.

To begin  ...

VK paper on Theotokos for Mary Page

http://campus.udayton.edu/mary/maryorthodox.htm

 
Patristic and other early sources
 
Good directory   

www.earlychristianwritings.com 

 

St. Ignatius

http://web.archive.org/web/20080121044055/http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/ignatius.html

 

St. Justin

 http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/justin.html

 

Clement of Alexandria

 http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/clement.html 

 

Gospel of Thomas

 http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/thomas.html

 

Sub Tuum Praesidium

 

π τν σν εσπλαγχνίαν,

 

καταφεύγομεν, Θεοτόκε.

 

Τς μν κεσίας,

 

μ παρίδς ν περιστάσει,

 

λλ κ κινδύνων λύτρωσαι μς,

 

μόνη γνή, μόνη ελογημένη.

 

 

Beneath your compassion,

We take refuge, O Mother of God:

do not despise our petitions in time of trouble

but rescue us from dangers,

only pure, only blessed one.

 

Akathist Hymn

http://www.goarch.org/multimedia/video/akathisthymn/qt-akathisthymn 

Explanation of hymnology – (1)

http://www.goarch.org/multimedia/video/holycrosslive/rm-music1

4/5 of liturgy = music

 didactic, doxological, Eucharistic (thanksgiving), petition

 praise, thanks, ask

 theotokion – hymns to the Theotokos

 major hymnists – Romanos, John Damascene, Cassiani

antiphon - Originally thought to originate with St. Ignatius. Later they became little hymns sung as repsponsories that introduced a hymn with short passage from a psalm. This usually implied a christological meaning. Today in liturgy they either precede or follow the hymn or reading.

kontakion (theotokion) - A short hymn that recalls the subjec of the day's feast and is sung after the 6th ode of the Canon during the Hours or during the Liturgy.

 

Explanation of hymnology – (2)

http://www.goarch.org/multimedia/video/holycrosslive/rm-music2

  

Explanation of hymnology – (1)

http://www.goarch.org/multimedia/video/holycrosslive/rm-music1

         

Explanation of hymnology – (2)

http://www.goarch.org/multimedia/video/holycrosslive/rm-music2

 

AKATHISTOS … words

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/akathis.html

 

Homily on Akathistos by John Paul II

http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/homilies/2000/documents/hf_jp-ii_hom_20001208_akathistos_en.html

 

Eikona sample of chant

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dJipuoCREPE

 

Akathistos …  “To the Champion”     

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jBWcl5ifrG0&feature=related

 

PARAKLESIS

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5F9-cc_lOVw&feature=related 

 

 

Patristic Writings:

Early Christian Writings

www.earlychristianwritings.com 

 

            Clement    80 – 140 AD

            Ignatius  105-115 AD

            [Proto-evangelium James] Infancy Gospel     

            of  James  140-170 AD

            Justin Martyr       150-160 AD

            Irenaeus                 175-185

 

 

John of Damascus

  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kVhm6w4spNY&feature=related

 

            In Defense of Icons

            http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/johndam-icons.html

 

Ante Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers  [Fordham]

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook2.html#ecf 

Includes for example, St. Cyril, St. Basil, St. Chrysostom, St. Gregory of Nyssa, St. Gregory of Nazianzen, etc

 

 

Table of Preparation at the Divine Liturgy

(gifts prepared during Morning Prayer)

Look and listen for the "Queen at the King's side" and the preparation of the bread itself with symbols.

 

http://www.oca.org/OCchapter.asp?SID=2&ID=91     preparation table   OCA

 

http://orthodoxwiki.org/Proskomedia   Orthodox  Wiki

 

 

 

 

 

Greek Alphabet

Remember ŕ  Greek is the language of the New Testament

 

 

Name

Upper Case

Lower Case

English

Pronunciation

Alpha

Α

α

a

father

Beta

Β

β

b

ball

Gamma

Γ

γ

g

gift

Delta

Δ

δ

d

dog

Epsilon

Ε

ε

e

egg

Zeta

Ζ

ζ

z

zoo

Eta

Η

η

ē

obey

Theta

Θ

θ

th

think

Iota

Ι

ι

i

igloo

Kappa

Κ

κ

k

kit

Lambda

Λ

λ

l

log

Mu

Μ

μ

m

man

Nu

Ν

ν

n

not

Xi

Ξ

ξ

x

wax

Omicron

Ο

ο

o

octagon

Pi

Π

π

p

pot

Rho

Ρ

ρ

r

run

Sigma

Σ

σ,ς

s

sit

Tau

Τ

τ

t

tub

Upsilon

Υ

υ

u

lute

Phi

Φ

φ

ph

phone

Chi

Χ

χ

ch

chemist

Psi

Ψ

ψ

ps

taps

Omega

Ω

ω

ō

home

WORDS to  practice …

 

Greek: Θεοτόκος ( translit. Theotókos)

 

Origen (d. 254) is often cited as the earliest author to use Theotokos for Mary (Socrates, Ecclesiastical History 7.32 citing Origen's Commentary on Romans) but the text upon which this assertion is based may not be genuine.

Dionysios of Alexandria used Theotokos in about 250, in an epistle to Paul of Samosata.

Athanasius of Alexandria in 330, Gregory the Theologian in 370, John Chrysostom in 400, and Augustine all used Theotokos.

Theodoret wrote in 436 that calling the Virgin Mary Theotokos is an apostolic tradition.

 

The use of Theotokos was formally affirmed at the Third Ecumenical Council held at Ephesus in 431. The competing view, advocated by Patriarch Nestorius of Constantinople, was that Mary should be called Christotokos, meaning "Birth-giver of Christ," to restrict her role to the mother of Christ's humanity only and not his divine nature.

 

Greek:  Μήτηρ του Θεού (translit. Mētēr tou Theou)

 

Greek: Παναγία, or fem. of panágios, pan- + hágios, All-holy

 

The  Axion Estin  (hymn used in the Divine Liturgy of St. Chrysostom right after the consecration – at the conclusion of the anaphora)

Άξιον εστίν ως αληθώς
μακαρίζειν σε την Θεοτόκον,
την αειμακάριστον και παναμώμητον
και μητέρα του Θεού ημών.
Την τιμιωτέραν των Χερουβείμ
και ενδοξοτέραν ασυγκρίτως των Σεραφείμ
την αδιαφθόρως Θεόν Λόγον τεκούσαν,
την όντως Θεοτόκον,
Σε μεγαλύνομεν.

It is truly right to bless thee, O Theotokos,
ever blessed, and most pure, and the Mother of our God.
More honorable than the cherubim,
and beyond compare more glorious than the serpahim.
Without corruption thou gavest birth to God the Word. Truly,

Theotokos, we magnify thee.

 

 

Mt. Athos   

Holy Family in Egypt  (Coptic)

      Part One

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0TUDgZF86gc 

      Part Three

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l8oPH_CdPDg

      Part Three

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XjdRS-Z5bMg&NR=1

 

Video on Mt. Athos   

     Part One

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LMUDjICyD5U

    Part Two

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J8Y1wlXwE20&NR=1

    Part Three

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J8Y1wlXwE20&NR=1

    Part Four

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1_T_-my_4QA&feature=related

     Part Five

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4q-frcQ0mmU&NR=1 

 

 

PASCHA on Mt. Athos

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9aW5Obz3T1g&feature=related

 

 

Philotheou Monastery

http://www.etheology.tv/view/117/photo-trip-to-philotheou-monastery/

 

Trip photos to Mt. Athos

http://www.etheology.tv/view/116/photo-trip-to-mount-athos/ 

 

Vespers on Mt. Athos

http://www.etheology.tv/view/38/vespers-in-mount-athos/

 

 

Proskomidi

http://www.etheology.tv/view/5/proskomidi-/   Asian Orthodox – 2 languages 

 

Faith and Power Exhibit – Metropolitan

http://www.helleniccomserve.com/kimball_exhibit.html

 

Faith and Power Exhibit

http://www.metmuseum.org/special/Byzantium/byzantium_splash.htm

 

 

 

Cloisters Museum

http://www.metmuseum.org/Works_of_Art/collection_database/listview.aspx?page=1&sort=5&sortdir=&keyword=&fp=1&dd1=7&dd2=28&vw=1

http://www.metmuseum.org/Works_of_Art/collection_database/listview.aspx?page=1&sort=5&sortdir=&keyword=&fp=1&dd1=7&dd2=28&vw=1

 

Dumbarton Oaks, Washington DC (A Harvard University Museum)

http://museum.doaks.org/IT_907?sid=1421&x=359459&x=359460

http://museum.doaks.org/IT_966?sid=1421&x=359649&x=359650

http://museum.doaks.org/Obj27054?sid=1421&x=359689&port=2608 famous ivory

 

 

 
 

Mary in the Scriptures

 

Old Testament (Hebrew Scriptures)

The sense of Mary (Miryam of Nazareth) is discovered in Hebrew scriptures written long before she lived. Early Church theologians compared her to images in the scriptures.

            Such as typologies – i.e.Cloud over the Ark, Mt. Sinai, the Burning Bush,

        Zion, Second Eve (frequent symbols for Mary in patristic

        literature

            Genesis 3:15  - Some interpret this to mean that Mary will crush the heel of Satan

            Isaiah 7:14     - Some interpret this passage as a prophetic image of Mary

            Isaiah 11:1     - Jesse was the father of David, Jesus is descended from David

            Isaiah 40:1-11 – Passage quoted in Handel’s Messiah, parallels the joy of Mary

                                        in the Magnificat

            Zephaniah 3:14-17  - Mary is the daughter of Zion

 

New Testament

52-57 AD         St. Paul describes Mary as a “woman” rather than a

                                    “goddess,” the mother of a god of pagan religion. Background of Mary –

                                    through references to Jesus – as descended from the line of

                                    Jesus.  Galatians 4:4-5; Romans 1:3-4

70 AD              St.Mark: 3:31-35; 6:1-6a                   Jesus and his family

                        (And perhaps, Mark 15:40, 47;  16:1 – “Marys” at the cross & tomb)

80-85 AD         St. Matthew: Genealogy Matthew 1:1-17; 

                                    Annunciation to Joseph - Matthew 1:18-25 with ref to Is 7:14;

Wise men Mt 2:1-12 (vs. 11), Escape to Egypt Mt 2:13-15, Return to Nazareth Mt 2:19-23; True kindred Mt 12:40-50; Rejection of Jesus Mt 13:54-58

85 AD              St. Luke: Annunciation to Mary Luke 1:26-38; Visitation/Magnificat

                                    Lk 1:39-56; Birth Narrative Lk 2:1-21; Presentation of Jesus in                                                Temple & return to Nazareth Lk 2:22-40; Finding Jesus in the

                                    Temple Lk 2:41-52; Genealogy Lk 3:23-38;

                                    Rejection at Nazareth Lk 4:16-30; Jesus and family Lk 8:19-21;

                                    Blessedness of Mary Lk 11:27-28

Acts of the Apostles        Pentecost   Acts 1:14

90AD               St. John 1:13 Possible reference to the Virgin Birth;

                           Jn 2:1-12   Wedding Feast of Cana (first miracle);

                           Jn 6: 41-42 Reference to Mary and Joseph; Jn 7:1-13 Brothers of Jesus;

                           Jn 7:41-43 Origins of the Messiah; Jn 19:25-28a Calvary, Mary at the

                           foot of the cross

95 AD              Revelation  12  The woman of the apocalypse, Mary as the Church, or

Woman of Zion and not specifically Mary.  Common image of the

Assumption/ Immaculate Conception (Gen 3:15)

 

Apocryphal Writings

Late 100s AD   Latin Pseudo-Matthew; Infancy Gospel of Thomas

to 300 AD         Acts of Pilate/Gospel of Nicodemus; Gospel of Philip: Proto-Gospel of St.

                        James; Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles; Gospel of Peter; Sybilline Oracles;                          Multiple Dormition Accounts    

                       

 

THE PATRIARCHAL DIVINE LITURGY
 

Kimball  Illuminations 

http://etd.ohiolink.edu/view.cgi?acc_num=dayton1264781028

 

Robert Andrews

Mosaic in San Francisco G. O. Cathedral     video

http://www.vimeo.com/1119924

 

 

 

S 420 Monday to Thursday, June 14-17, 2010